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Difference between revisions of "CD38"

From www.haemtologyetc.co.uk

 
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<span style="color:navy">'''Diagnostic role'''</span>  
 
<span style="color:navy">'''Diagnostic role'''</span>  
  
The major value lies in its use together with CD138, (possibly also CD45 and light-scatter) to identify plasma cells. This may be valuable for diagnosis or monitoring of myeloma. However, CD38 is expressed by both normal and myelomatous plasma cells, and expression may be dimmer on neoplastic plasma cells. Significant CD38 expression (expression by more than 20% of cells) has been shown to predict poor outcome in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. CD38 is commonly expressed on blasts of any lineage and therefore provides little diagnostic distinction.
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The major value lies in its use together with CD138 to identify plasma cells (often together with CD45 and side scatter). This may be valuable for diagnosis or monitoring of myeloma. However, CD38 is expressed by both normal and myelomatous plasma cells, and expression may be dimmer on neoplastic plasma cells. Significant CD38 expression (expression by more than 20% of cells) has been shown to predict poor outcome in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. CD38 is commonly expressed on blasts of any lineage and therefore provides little diagnostic distinction.
  
 
   
 
   
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File:Freq.png|''Pro-T ALL''|link=Flow cytometry key
 
File:Freq.png|''Pro-T ALL''|link=Flow cytometry key
 
File:Freq.png|''Mature-T ALL''|link=Flow cytometry key
 
File:Freq.png|''Mature-T ALL''|link=Flow cytometry key
File:Poss.png|''AML''|link=Flow cytometry key
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File:Poss.png|''AML *''|link=Flow cytometry key
 
File:Hi.png|''Haemato-gones''|link=Flow cytometry key
 
File:Hi.png|''Haemato-gones''|link=Flow cytometry key
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
  
<span style="font-size:90%">'''Notes'''
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<span style="font-size:90%">
''Low expression in APL
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''* Low expression in APL''
 
</span>
 
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Latest revision as of 15:07, 10 October 2019


  • The principle diagnostic value of CD38 is that its expression is retained and generally increased during differentiation to plasma cells
  • CD38 expression has some value in predicting prognosis in CLL
  • CD38 is also expressed by committed stem cells together with CD34 and can occasionally be of value in acute leukaemia diagnosis




Normal expression and function

CD38 helps initiate the mobilsation of intracellular calcium, activating a wide array of cell functions that depend on cell type. In haematological cell types CD38 is widely expressed by lymphoid cells and by particular myeloid cells – often in a stage-specific manner. For B lymphocytes CD38 expression is acquired as stem cells commit to B-cell lineage, then lost as mature B cells emerge from bone marrow before being re-acquired by germinal center cells and at the time of plasma cell differentiation. It is also expressed by NK cells and by activated T lymphocytes. CD38 is expressed by most early precursor cells, and by mature monocytes and granulocytes.



Diagnostic role

The major value lies in its use together with CD138 to identify plasma cells (often together with CD45 and side scatter). This may be valuable for diagnosis or monitoring of myeloma. However, CD38 is expressed by both normal and myelomatous plasma cells, and expression may be dimmer on neoplastic plasma cells. Significant CD38 expression (expression by more than 20% of cells) has been shown to predict poor outcome in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. CD38 is commonly expressed on blasts of any lineage and therefore provides little diagnostic distinction.


Other relevant information:


CD38 is a therapeutic target, daratumumab is a monoclonal antibody which binds to CD38 and is used in the treatment of myeloma.



SUMMARY TABLES


Expression by acute leukaemias and by haematogones

* Low expression in APL


Expression by B-lymphoproliferative disorders

Notes Expression variable in FL




KEY


The indicated expression frequency, indicates the approximate frequency of occurrence in each particular disease type.


Rare.png

rare (<5%)

Poss.png

possible (5-20%)

Mod.png

likely (20-40%)

Freq.png

frequent (40-80%)

Hi.png

expected (>80%)


Where expression level is unusual or characteristic of a disorder this is indicated by text: