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Typical parasite forms or appearances in malaria

From www.haematologyetc.co.uk





INDEX


A

Accolé form - the "edge" parasite, most closely associated with P.falciparum though certainly not restricted to this species


Amoeboid forms - a particular description applied to the irregular solid late trophozoites from P.vivax, very typical of the species


Angular forms - a solid late trophozoite form that appears angular in shape, most closely associated with P.malarie


B

Banana gametocyte - the curved elongated form of the gametocyte of P.faliciparum


Band appearance - in P.malariae (and also P.knowlesi) the late trophozoite may form a band across the infected erythrocyte


C

Central chromatin dot - the chromatin dot appears to lie within the vacuole of a ring form, may be more frequent in P.malariae


Comet form - a feature of P.ovale where the combination of elongation and fimbriation is said to resemble a comet


Crenated red cells - the red cells in P.falciparum may become crenated following parasite invasion



D

Daisy head schizont - schizonts with a central area of pigment surrounded by petal like merozoites


Distorted erythrocyte shape - the parasite modifies the shape of the infected erythrocyte, most characteristic of P.vivax


Double chromatin dot forms - trophozoites in which the chromatin forms two roughly equal dots


Dual species infection - in some instances infection occurs simultaneously with two different species


E

Exflagellation - an in vitro artefact of storage in which parasites undergo changes normally occurring in the mosquito gut



F

Fimbriation - irregular projections of the erythrocyte membrane seen mainly in P.ovale



J

James' dots - frequent red-purple dots in the cytoplasm of P.ovale infected erythrocytes



M

Malaria pigment - brown or gold masses within the cytoplasm of infected red cells or overlying parasites


Maurer's dots and clefts - blue dots or short linear structures seen in P.falciparum infected red cells


Macrogametocytes & Microgametocytes - male and female forms of malarial gametocytes differ in size


Multiple parasites - more than one parasite seen within an infected erythrocyte, most frequently seen in P.falciparum



R

Ring forms - probably the most familiar and frequently encountered parasite form



S

Schüffner's dots - frequent red-purple dots that arise in the cytoplasm of erythrocytes infected by P.vivax


Size and shape of infected red cells - the size and shape of red cells containing parasites varies between species


Staining pH - the pH of the malaria stain can significantly affect the parasite and erythrocyte appearances



P

Phagocytosed malaria pigment - malaria pigment is released into the blood as schizonts rupture and is phagocytosed by neutrophils or monocytes